Categorized | AIS File Library, Theology

100 Evidences For Creation

The apostle Peter predicted the abandonment of the belief in the worldwide flood in 2 Peter 3:3 when he said

“Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished: But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.”
2 Peter 3:3-7

The Scientific Case for Creation and the case for the Worldwide Flood being the cause of the fossil record.

EVOLUTION HAS NEVER BEEN OBSERVED!

1. Spontaneous generation (the emergence of life from inorganic  materials) has never been observed.

2. Mendel’s laws of genetics explain almost all of the physical  variations that are observed within life categories such as the dog family. A logical consequence of these laws and their modern day refinements is that there are limits to such variation.

3. Acquired characteristics cannot be inherited.

4. Natural selection cannot produce new genes; it only selects among preexisting characteristics.

5. Mutations are the only proposed mechanism by which new genetic material becomes available for evolution.

6. Almost all observable mutations are harmful; many are lethal.

7. No known mutation has ever produced a form of life having both greater complexity and greater viability than its ancestors.

8. Over seventy years of fruit-fly experiments, equivalent to 2700 human generations, give no basis for believing that any natural or artificial process can cause an increase in either complexity or viability. No clear genetic improvement has been observed despite the many unnatural efforts to increase mutation rates.

9. There is no reason to believe that mutations could ever produce any new organs such as the eye, the ear, or the brain.

10. No verified forms of extraterrestrial life of any kind have ever been observed.

11. If languages evolved, the earliest languages should be the simplest. On the contrary, as one studies languages that are increasingly ancient, such as Latin (200 B.C.), Greek (800 B.C.), and Vedic Sanskrit (1500 B.C.), they become increasingly complex with respect to syntax, cases, genders, moods, voices,
tenses, and verb forms. The best evidence indicates that languages DEvolve.

12. The many similarities between different species do not necessarily imply a genealogical relationship; they may imply a common Designer.

13. The existence of human organs whose function is unknown does not imply that they are vestiges of organs from our evolutionary ancestors. In fact, as medical knowledge has increased, the functions of almost all of these organs have been discovered.

14. As an embryo develops, it does not pass through the adult stages of its alleged evolutionary ancestors. Embryologists no longer consider the superficial similarity that exists between a few embryos and the adult forms of simpler animals as evidence of evolution.

15. Stories claiming that primitive, ape-like men have been found are overstated. Piltdown man was an acknowledged hoax.  The fragmentary evidence that constituted Nebraska man was a pig’s tooth. The discoverer of Java man later acknowledged that it was a large gibbon and that he had withheld evidence
to that effect. The evidence concerning Peking man has disappeared. Louis and Mary Leakey, the discoverers of Zinjanthropus (previously referred to by some as Australopithecus), later admitted that they were probably apes. Ramapithecus consists merely of a handful of teeth and jaw fragments; his teeth are very similar to those of the gelada baboon living today. For about 100 years the world was led to believe that Neanderthal man was stooped and ape-like. Recent studies show that this individual was crippled with arthritis and probably had rickets. Neanderthal man, Heidelberg man, and Cro-Magnon man are similar to humans living today. Artists’ depictions, especially of the fleshy portions of the body, are quite imaginative and are not supported by evidence.  Furthermore, the dating techniques are questionable.

16. Many of the world’s fossils show, by the details of their soft fleshy portions, that they were buried before they could decay. This, together with the occurrence of polystrate fossils (fossils that traverse two or more strata of sedimentary rock) in Carboniferous, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic formations, is unmistakable evidence that this sedimentary material was deposited rapidly — not over hundreds of millions of years.

17. Many fossils of modern looking humans have been found deep in rock formations that are supposedly many millions of years older than evolutionary theory would predict. These remains are ignored by evolutionists.

18. The vertical sequencing of fossils is frequently not in the assumed evolutionary order.

19. Nowhere on the earth can one find the so-called “geologic column.” Even at the Grand Canyon, only a small fraction of this imaginary column is found.

20. If evolution had occurred, the fossil record should show continuous and gradual changes from the bottom to the top layers and between all forms of life. Just the opposite is found. Many complex species appear suddenly in the lowest layers, and innumerable gaps and discontinuities appear throughout.

21. The vast majority of the sediments, which encase practically all fossils, were laid down though Water.

22. The worldwide fossil record is evidence of the rapid death and burial of animal and plant life by a flood; it is not evidence of slow change.

RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFE ARE SOCOMPLEX THAT CHANCE AND EVEN BILLIONS OF YEARSCANNOT EXPLAIN IT.

23. If the earth, early in its alleged evolution, had oxygen in its atmosphere, the chemicals needed for life would have been removed by oxidation. But if there had been no oxygen, then there would have been no ozone, and without ozone all life would be quickly destroyed by the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

24. There have been many imaginative but unsuccessful attempts to explain how just one single protein could form from any of the assumed atmospheres of the early earth. The necessary chemical reactions all tend to move in the opposite direction from that required. Furthermore, each possible energy source,
whether the earth’s heat, electrical discharges, or the sun’s radiation, would destroy the protein products millions of times faster than they could be formed.

25. If, despite the virtually impossible odds, proteins arose by chance processes, there is not the remotest reason to believe that they could ever form a self-reproducing, membrane- encased, living cell. There is no evidence that there are any stable states between the assumed naturalistic formation of proteins and the formation of the first living cells. No scientist has ever advanced a testable procedure whereby this
fantastic jump in complexity could have occurred -even if the universe were completely filled with proteins.

26. If life is ultimately the result of random chance, then so is thought. Your thoughts — such as what you are now thinking – would in the final analysis be a consequence of accident only and therefore would have no validity.

27. Computer-generated comparisons have been made of the sequences of amino acids that comprise a protein which is common to 47 forms of animal and plant life. The results of this study seriously contradict the predictions of the theory of evolution.

28. The genetic information contained in each cell of the human body is roughly equivalent to a library of 4000 volumes.  For chance mutations and natural selection to produce this amount of information, assuming that matter and life somehow got started, is analogous to continuing the following procedure
until 4000 volumes have been produced:
(a) Start with a meaningful phrase.
(b) Retype the phrase but make some errors and insert some additional letters.
(c) Examine the new phrase to see if it is meaningful.
(d) If it is, replace the original phrase with it.
(e) Return to step (b).
To accumulate 4000 volumes that are meaningful, this procedure would have to produce the equivalent of far more than 10^3000 (10 to the 3000th power) animal offspring. (To just begin tounderstand how large 10^3000 is, realize that the visible universe has less than 10^80 atoms in it.)

29. Based on present day observations, DNA can only be replicated or reproduced with the help of certain enzymes. But these enzymes can only be produced at the direction of DNA.  Since each requires the other, a satisfactory explanation for the origin of one must simultaneously explain the origin of the other. No evidence exists for any such naturalistic explanation.

30. Amino acids, when found in nonliving matter, come in two forms that are chemically equivalent; about half can be described as “right-handed” and half “left-handed” (a structural description — one is the mirror image of the other). However, the protein molecules found in all forms of life, including plants, animals, bacteria, molds, and even viruses, have only the left-handed variety. The mathematical probability that
chance processes could produce just one tiny protein molecule with only left-handed amino acids is virtually zero.

31. The simplest form of life consists of 600 different protein molecules. The mathematical probability that just one molecule could form by the chance arrangement of the proper amino acids is far less than 1 in 10^527 (10 to the 527th power).  (The magnitude of the number 10^527 can begin to be appreciated by realizing that the visible universe is about 10^28 inches in diameter.)

32. There are many instances where quite different forms of life are completely dependent upon each other. Examples include: fig trees and the fig gall wasp, the yucca plant and the pronuba moth, many parasites and their hosts, pollen- bearing plants and the honey-bee family consisting of the queen, workers, and drones. If one member of each interdependent group evolved first (such as the plant before the animal), the other members could not have survived. Since all members of the group obviously have survived, they must have come into existence at essentially the same time.

33. Detailed studies of various animals have revealed certain physical equipment and capabilities that cannot be duplicated by the world’s best designers using the most sophisticated technologies. A few examples include: the miniature and reliable sonar systems of the dolphins, porpoises, and whales; the frequency modulated radar and discrimination system of the bat; the efficiency and aerodynamic capabilities of the hummingbird; the control systems, internal ballistics, and combustion chambers of the bombardier beetle; and the precise and redundant navigational systems of many birds and fish.  The many components of these complex systems could not have evolved in stages without placing a selective disadvantage on the animal. All evidence points to a Designer.

34. If sexual reproduction in plants, animals, and humans is a result of evolution, an absolutely unbelievable series of chance events would have had to occur. First, the amazingly complex and completely different reproductive systems of the male must have completely and independently evolved at about the same time and place as those of the female. A slight incompleteness in just one of the two would make both systems useless, and natural selection would oppose their survival. Second, the physical and emotional systems of the male and female would also need to be compatible. Third, the complex products of the
male reproductive system (pollen or sperm) would have to have an affinity for and a mechanical and chemical compatibility with the eggs from the female reproductive system. Fourth, the intricate and numerous processes occurring at the molecular level inside the fertilized egg would have to work with
fantastic precision the very first time it happened — processes which scientists can only describe in an aggregate sense. And final, the environment of the fertilized egg, from conception until it also reproduces with another sexually capable “brother or sister,” would have to be controlled to an unbelievable degree. Either this series of incredible events occurred by random processes, or else an Intelligent Designer created sexual reproduction.

THE UNIVERSE, THE SOLAR SYSTEM, THE EARTH, AND LIFE WERE RECENTLY CREATED.

Naturalistic explanations for the evolution of the solar system and universe are unscientific and hopelessly inadequate.

According to ALL theories on the evolution of the solar system:

35. The planets should all rotate on their axes in the same direction; Venus and Uranus rotate backwards.

36. All 42 moons of the various planets should revolve in the same direction; at least 11 revolve backwards.

37. The orbits of these 42 moons should all lie in the equatorial plane of the planet they orbit; many, including the earth’s moon, are highly inclined.

38. The material of the earth (and Mars, Venus, and Mercury) should almost all be hydrogen and helium —
similar to that of the sun and the rest of the visible universe; actually much less than 1% of the earth’s mass
is hydrogen or helium.

39. The sun should have 700 times more angular momentum than the planets; the planets have 50 times
more angular momentum than the sun.

40. Detailed analyses indicate that stars could not have formed from interstellar gas clouds. To do so, either by first forming dust particles or by a direct gravitational collapse of the gas, would require vastly more time than the alleged age of the universe. The ONLY alternative is that stars must have been
created.

41. The sun’s tidal forces are so strong that dust clouds or gas clouds lying within the orbit of Jupiter could never condense to form planets.

42. Saturn’s rings could not have formed from the disintegration of a former satellite or from the capture of
external material; its particles are too small and too evenly distributed throughout an orbit that is too circular. Therefore, the rings appear to be remnants of its creation.

43. The moon was not torn from the earth, nor did it congeal from the same material as the earth since the relative abundances of its elements are too dissimilar from those of the earth. If the moon formed from particles orbiting the earth, other particles should be easily visible inside the moon’s orbit; none are. The moon’s circular, highly inclined orbit is strong evidence that it was never captured by the earth. If the moon was not pulled from the earth, was not built up from smaller particles near its present orbit, and was not captured from outside its present orbit, only one possibility remains. The moon must have been created in its present orbit.

44. No scientific theory exists to explain the origin of matter, space, or time. Since each is intimately related or even defined in terms of the other, a satisfactory explanation for the origin of one must also explain the origin of the others.  Naturalistic explanations have completely failed.

45. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of our universe is constant, or conserved. Countless experiments have shown that regardless of the energy conversion process, the total amount of energy (or its mass equivalent) remains constant. A corollary of the First Law is the no energy can
be created. Since the universe obviously has energy, that energy must have been created in the past when The First Law was not operating. Since the energy of the universe could not have created itself, Something external; must have created it.

46. A consequence of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is that the universe could not have always existed; it must have had a beginning. A further consequence of the Second Law is that when the universe began, it was in a more organized state than it is today — not in a highly disorganized state as assumed by evolutionists and proponents of the Big Bang Theory.

47. We have seen stars die; we have NOT seen stars being born. Only downhill processes are observed, NEVER uphill or evolutionary processes. There is NO evidence that stars evolve.

48. Stellar evolution is ASSUMED in estimation the age of stars. These age estimates are then used to establish a framework for stellar evolution. This is CIRCULAR reasoning.

49. There is NO evidence that galaxies evolved.

TECHNIQUES THAT ARGUE FOR AN OLD EARTH ARE EITHER ILLOGICAL OR ARE BASED ON UNPROVEN ASSUMPTIONS!

50. Any estimated date prior to the beginning of written records must necessarily assume that the dating clock has operated at a known rate, that the initial setting of the clock is known, and that the clock has not been disturbed. These assumptions are almost always unstated or overlooked.

51. A major assumption that underlies all radioactive dating techniques is that the rates of decay, which have been essentially constant over the past 70 years, have also been constant over the past 4,600,000,000 years. This bold, critical, and untestable assumption is made even though no one knows what causes radioactive decay.

52. The public has been greatly misled concerning the reliability and trustworthiness of radiometric dating techniques (the Potassium-Argon method, the Rubidium-Strontium method, and the Uranium-Thorium method). Many of the published dates can be checked by comparisons with the assumed ages for the fossils that sometimes bracket radiometrically dated rock.  In over 300 (or almost half) of these PUBLISHED checks, the radiometrically determined ages were at least one geologic age in error — indicating major errors in methodology. An unanswered question is, “How many other dating checks were not published because they too were in error?”

53. Pleochroic halos, tiny spheres of discoloration produced by the radioactive decay of particles that are encased in various crystals, show that the earth’s crust was NEVER in a molten state. Furthermore, these halos suggest that the rate of radioactive decay was NOT constant, and in fact, varied by MANY orders of magnitude from that observed today.

54. Geological formations are almost always dated by their fossil content, especially by certain INDEX FOSSILS of extinct animals. The age of the fossil is derived from the ASSUMED evolutionary sequence, but the evolutionary sequence is based on the fossil record. This reasoning is CIRCULAR!  Furthermore, this procedure has produced many contradictory results.

55. Human footprints are found alongside dinosaur footprints in the rock formations of the Paluxy riverbed in Texas. This obviously shows that man and dinosaurs lived at the same time and the same place. But evolutionists claim that dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years before man supposedly began to evolve.

56. Many different people have found at different times and places man-made artifacts encased in coal! Examples include an 8-carat gold chain, a spoon, a thimble, an iron pot, a bell, and other objects of obvious human manufacture. Many other “out-of-place artifacts” such as a metallic vase, a screw, nails, a strange coin, and a doll have been found buried deeply in solid rock. By evolutionary dating techniques, these objects would be hundreds of millions of years old; but man supposedly didn’t begin to evolve until 2-4 million years ago. Something is wrong.

57. In rock formations in Utah, Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Kentucky, human footprints that are supposedly 150-600 million years old have been found and examined by many different authorities. Obviously, there is a major error in chronology.

58. The fact that there is no worldwide unconformity in the earth’s sedimentary strata implies that this entire geologic record must have been deposited rapidly. (An “unconformity” is an erosional surface between two adjacent rock formations representing a time break of unknown duration. “Conformities”
imply a continuous and rapid deposition. Since one can always trace a continuous path from the bottom to the top of the geologic record that avoids these unconformities, the sediments along that path must have been deposited continuously.)

59. Radiocarbon dating, which has been accurately calibrated by counting the rings of living trees that are up to 3,500 years old, is unable to extend this accuracy and date organic remains that are more ancient. A few people have claimed that ancient wood exists which will permit this calibration to be extended
even further back in time, but these people have not let outside scientists examine their data. On the other hand, measurements made at hundreds of sites worldwide indicate that the concentration of radiocarbon in the atmosphere rose quite rapidly at some time prior to 3,500 years ago. If this happened, a radiocarbon age of 40,000 years could easily correspond to a true age of 5,000 years!

MOST DATING TECHNIQUES SHOW THE EARTH AND SOLAR
SYSTEM TO BE YOUNG.

60. Direct measurements of the earth’s magnetic field over the past 140 years show a steady and rapid decline in its strength.  This decay pattern is consistent with the theoretical view that there is an electrical current inside the earth which produces the magnetic field. If this view is correct, then 25,000 years
ago the electrical current would have been so vast that the earth’s structure could not have survived the heat produced.  This would imply that the earth could not be older than 25,000 years.

61. Atomic clocks, which have for the last 22 years measured the earth’s spin rate to the nearest billionth of a second, have consistently found that the earth is slowing down at the rate of almost one second a year. If the earth were billions of years old, its initial spin rate would have been fantastically rapid-so rapid that major distortions in the shape of the earth would have occurred.

62. Over twenty-seven billion tons of sediments, primarily from our rivers, are entering the oceans each year. Obviously, this rate of sediment transport has not been constant and has probably been decreasing as the looser top soil has been removed. But even if it has been constant, the sediments which are now on the ocean floor would have accumulated in only 30 million years. Therefore, the continents and oceans cannot be one billion years old.

63. The atmosphere has less than 40,000 years worth of helium, based on just the production of helium from the decay of uranium and thorium. There is no known means by which large amounts of helium can escape from the atmosphere. The atmosphere appears to be young.

64. The rate at which elements such as copper, gold, tin, lead, silicon, mercury, uranium and nickel are entering the oceans is very rapid when compared with the small quantities of these elements already in the oceans. Therefore, the oceans must be very much younger than a million years.

65. Evolutionists believe that the continents have existed for at least 1 billion years. However, the continents are being eroded at a rate that would level them in a relatively short 14 million years.

66. The occurrence of abnormally high gas and oil pressures within relatively permeable rock implies that these fluids were formed or encased less than 10,000 years ago. If these hydrocarbons had been trapped over 10,000 years ago, there would have been leakage which would have dropped the pressure to a level far below what it is today.

67. There have been no authenticated reports of the discovery of meteorites in sedimentary material. If the sediments, which have an average depth of 1 1/2 miles, were laid down over hundreds of millions of years, many of these steadily falling meteorites should have been discovered. Therefore, the sediments appear to have been deposited rapidly; furthermore, since there have been no reports of meteorites beneath the
sediments, they appear to have been deposited recently.

68. The rate at which meteoritic dust is accumulating on the earth is such that after 5 billion years, the equivalent of 182 feet of this dust should have accumulated. Because this dust is high in nickel, there should be an exceedingly large amount of nickel in the crustal rocks of the earth. No such concentration has been found- on land or in the oceans.  Consequently, the earth appears to be young.

69. If the moon were billions of years old, it should have accumulated extensive layers of space dust- possibly a mile in thickness. Before instruments were placed on the moon, NASA was very concerned that our astronauts would sink into a sea of dust. This did not happen; there is very little space dust on the moon. Conclusion: the moon is young.

70. The suns’s radiation applies an outward force on small particles orbiting the sun. Particles less than 100,000th of a centimeter in diameter should have been “blown out” of the solar system if the solar system were billions of years old.  These particles are still orbiting the sun. Conclusion: the solar system is young.

71. Since 1836, over one hundred different observers at the Royal Greenwich Observatory and U.S. Naval Observatory have made direct visual measurements which show that the diameter of the sun is shrinking at a rate of about .1% each century or about 5 feet per hour! Furthermore, records of solar eclipses indicate that this rapid shrinkage has been going on for at least the past 400 years. Several indirect techniques also
confirm this gravitational collapse, although these inferred collapse rates are only about 1/7th as much. Using the most conservative data, one must conclude that had the sun existed a million years ago, it would have been so large that it would have heated the earth so much that life could not have survived. Yet, evolutionists say that a million years ago all the present forms of life were essentially as they are now,
completed their evolution that began a thousand million years ago.

72. Short period comets “boil off” some of their mass each time they pass the sun. Nothing should remain of these comets after about 10,000 years. There are no known sources for replenishing comets. If comets came into existence at the same time as the solar system, the solar system must be less than 10,000 years old.

73. Jupiter and Saturn are each radiating more than twice the energy they receive from the sun. Calculations show that it is very unlikely that this energy comes from radioactive decay or gravitational contraction. The only other conceivable explanation is that these planets have not existed long enough to cool off.

74. The sun’s gravitational field acts as a giant vacuum cleaner which sweeps up about 100,000 tons of micrometeoroids per day. If the solar system were just 10,000 years old, no micrometeoroids should remain since there is no significant source of replenishment. A large disk shaped cloud of these
particles is orbiting the sun. Conclusion: the solar system is less the 10,000 years old.

75. Stars frequently travel in closely spaced clusters, moving in the same direction at nearly the same speed. This would not be the case if they had been traveling for billions of years, because even the slightest difference in their velocity would cause their dispersal after such great periods of time.

All dating techniques, to include the few that suggest an old earth and an old universe, lean heavily on the assumption that a process observed today has always proceeded at a known rate. This assumption may be grossly inaccurate. But in the case of the many dating “clocks” that show a young earth, a much better
understanding usually exists for the mechanism that drives the clock. Furthermore, the extrapolation process is over a much shorter time and is therefore more likely to be correct.

THE WORLDWIDE FLOOD OF NOAH’S DAY ACTUALLY
OCCURRED.

NOAH’S ARK PROBABLY EXISTS TODAY.

76. Ancient historians such as Josephus, the Jewish-Roman historian, and Berosus of the Chaldeans mentioned in their writings that the Ark existed. Marco Polo also stated that the Ark was reported to be on a mountain in Greater Armenia.

77. In about 1856, a team of three skeptical British scientists and two Armenian guides climbed to Ararat to demonstrate that the Ark did not exist. The Ark was found, but the British scientists threatened death to the guides if they reported it.  Years later one of the Armenians (then living if the United States) and one of the scientists independently reported that they actually located the Ark.

78. Sir James Bryce, a noted British scholar and traveler of the mid-nineteenth century, conducted extensive library research concerning the Ark. He became convinced that the Ark was preserved on Mount Ararat. Finally, he himself ascended to the summit of the mountain in 1867 and found, at the 13,000 foot level, a large piece of hand-tooled wood which he believed was from the Ark.

79. In 1883, according to a series of newspaper articles, a team of Turkish commissioners, while investigating avalanche conditions on Mount Ararat, unexpectedly cam upon the Ark projecting out of the melting ice at the end of an unusually warm summer. They claimed that they entered a portion of the
Ark, but the press reports maintained only an attitude of scoffing at the account.

80. In the unusually warm summers of 1902 and 1904, an Armenian boy, Georgie Hagopian, and his uncle climbed to the Ark which was sticking out of an ice pack. The boy climbed over the Ark and actually entered it. A tape recording of his detailed and very credible testimony made shortly before his death in 1972 has undergone voice analyzer tests which showed no indication of lying.

81. A Russian pilot, flying over Ararat in World War 1 (1915) thought he saw the Ark. The news of his discovery reached the Czar, who dispatched a large expedition to the site. The soldiers were able to locate and explore the boat, but before they could report back to the capitol, the Russian Revolution of 1917 had occurred. The report disappeared, and the soldiers were scattered. Some of them eventually reached the United States. Various relatives and friends have since confirmed this story.

82. At about the time of the Russian sighting, five Turkish soldiers, crossing Mount Ararat, claim to have accidentally encountered the Ark; however, they did not report their story until 30 years later when they offered to guide an American expedition to the site. The expedition did not materialize, and their services were never sought until after their deaths.

83. During World War II, a group of Russian flyers on at least two occasions took photographs from the air which showed the Ark protruding out of the ice. These photos were shown to an American doctor in Berlin after the war, who subsequently disclosed this story.

84. An oil geologist, George Greene, in 1953 took a number of photographs of the Ark from a helicopter. After returning to the United States, Greene showed his photographs to many people but was unable to raise financial backing for a ground- based expedition. Finally, he left for South America, where he
was killed. Although no one knows were the pictures are now, over 30 people have given sworn written testimony that they saw these photographs which clearly showed the Ark protruding from the melting ice field at the edge of a precipice.

There are many other stories in which people claim to have seen the Ark. Some of these are of questionable validity, and others are inconsistent with many of the known details. Only the most credible are cited above.

MANY OF THE EARTH’S PREVIOUSLY UNEXPLAINED FEATURES CAN BE EXPLAINED ONLY BY THIS FLOOD.

The origin of each of the following features of the earth is a subject of controversy within the earth sciences. Each typically involves numerous hypotheses and unexplainable aspects. All of these features can be viewed as a direct consequence of a singular and unrepeatable event- a flood whose waters burst forth from
worldwide, subterranean, and interconnected chambers with an energy release in excess of one trillion megatons of TNT. The cause and effect sequence of the event involved phenomena which are either well understood or are observable in modern times.

85. coal formations
86. mountains
87. ocean trenches
88. submarine canyons
89. mid-oceanic ridge
90. continental drift
91. magnetic patterns of the ocean floor
92. strata
93. glaciers and the ice age
94. continental shelves and slopes
95. submarine volcanoes and guyots
96. salt domes
97. metamorphic rock
THE SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE EVENTS OF THE FLOOD ARE REALLY QUITE PLAUSIBLE IF EXAMINED CLOSELY.

98. Every major mountain range on the earth contains fossils of sea life.

99. Practically every culture on earth has legends telling of a traumatic flood in which only a few humans survived in a large boat.

100. The majority of the earth’s mountains were formed after most of the sediments were deposited. If these mountains were again flattened out ( while the ocean basins were allowed to rise in compensation for this downward flow of mass), the oceans would flood the entire earth. Therefore, there is enough water on the earth to cover the smaller mountains that existed prior to the flood.

101. Seeds can still germinate after soaking for a year in salt water.

102. A 1,500,000 cubic foot ark and eight human passengers could support for one year the required number of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Estimates of the total number of animals carried range from 2,000 to 35,000. The logistic requirements that such a large vessel could satisfy include:
food and water, ventilation, and space for exercise and waste disposal.

103. A rectangular barge 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high would be quite stable in rough waters and quite capable of being fully loaded on dry land.

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